Authors: G. Gioacchini, S. Filippi, R. Debernardis, L. Marisaldi, R. Aiese Cigliano, O. Carnevali


  • Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
  • Sequentia Biotech SL, 08005 Barcelona, Spain

Publication: MDPI

Date: January, 2023

Link: A Window of Vulnerability: Chronic Environmental Stress Does Not Impair Reproduction in the Swordfish Xiphias gladius


The Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) stock was affected in last decades from overfish. The evaluation of the cross-talk among metabolism, stress response, immune system and reproduction in immature and mature females could be of great importance. For these reasons, in the present study, by transcriptomic and histological analysis, a deeper insight into the cross-talk among reproduction, metabolism and response to environmental cues across different stages of sexual maturation was provided by the livers of female swordfish. We show that mature females are able to properly reproduce, since they invest a lot of energy in reproduction; however, their detoxification capacity and immune system are compromised as evidenced by transcriptomic and histological approaches. These results suggest that during the reproductive season, mature females may be more susceptible to environmental stress and pollutants than immature ones.