Authors: Clizia Villano, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Salvatore Esposito, Vincenzo D’Amelia, Marina Iovene, Domenico Carputo and Riccardo Aversano
- Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy
- Sequentia Biotech, Carrer de València, 08009 Barcelona, Spain
- CREA Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops (CREA-CI), 71122 Foggia, Italy
- Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources (CNR-IBBR), National Research Council of Italy, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici, Italy
Date: February 2022
The cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera L., is represented by an enormous population of varieties and clones. They arise from the accumulation of gametic and somatic mutations during centuries of sexual and asexual propagation. These varieties represent a vast reservoir of traits/alleles that could be useful in improving the berry quality as well as against environmental stresses. However, most of them are still unexploited. For this reason, an efficient characterization system is essential to define the varietal identity, avoid cases of synonymy (identical genotypes but different names) and homonymy (same names but different genotypes) and deepen our understanding of the existing diversity within the grape germplasm. The plethora of DNA-based high-throughput technologies currently available provides promising tools for the analysis of diversity, overcoming many of the limitations of phenotypic-based diversity analyses. However, the analysis of intra-varietal diversity remains challenging. In this scenario, after summarizing the causes and consequences of grapevine genetic inter- and intra-varietal diversity, we review the DNA-based technologies used for varietal genotyping, emphasizing those able to distinguish clones within a variety. This review provides an update on the technologies used to explore grapevine diversity, the knowledge of which is necessary for an efficient exploitation and conservation of the grapevine germplasm.